In Europe, three species of wild strawberry grow in the wild. Wild strawberry (Fragaria vesca) it is found in forests of all continents, mainly in sheltered places and on the edges of forests. It produces red fruit, spherical or oval, shiny, very flavorful. A hilly wild strawberry (Fragaria viridis) it is similar to the common wild strawberry. It grows in warm and calcareous soils. The flowers are yellow and white. The wild strawberry is high (Fragaria elatior) It is characterized by lush growth and large, tasty fruits.
The cultivars of wild strawberries were created by crossing the common wild strawberry with its alpine variety and have become one of the most valuable plants cultivated by man. Strawberry fruits are highly nutritious and tasty. They contain easily digestible simple sugars, organic acids (lemon and apple), mineral salts and vitamins (K, B1, B2, PP, i C). Wild strawberries are an excellent dessert fruit, as well as useful for various types of preserves. WITH 10 m² can be harvested during the entire growing season to 6 kg of fruit.
Currently, there are only two varieties in cultivation, which were also included in the selection for allotment and home gardens. Those are: Baron Solemacher and Rugia.
Baron Solemacher has a compact habit, plant growth moderately strong. Its leaves are smaller and lighter than Rügen. Both sexes flowers. The inflorescence stalk is long, with small leaves, growing above the leaves. It does not produce runners. Its fruit is shorter than Rügen, no green top, red or white-yellow. The flesh of red fruits is light pink, white – green-yellow, very aromatic, tastes reminiscent of wild strawberries, and white fruit with a nutmeg flavor. The cup is tilted and separates easily from the fruit. The fruits ripen from mid-June to the end of October. Very fertile.
Rügen has a moderate growth rate, very even, compact habit, dark green leaves, shiny, with long petioles. Both sexes flowers, collected in inflorescences, they develop gradually over an extended period. It does not produce runners. It produces elongated fruit, sharply ended, intense red, yellow-green at the top, even in ripe fruit. Creamy flesh, not very juicy (only overripe fruits are juicy), aromatic, wild strawberry flavor. The cup is bent, easily separating from the fruit. The first fruits ripen in mid-June, the last one – at the beginning of November. This variety requires moist soil, fertile and well-fertilized. Fungal diseases occur on older plants. It is more appreciated than the previous one.
In addition to the above-mentioned ungrouped varieties, there are also creeping varieties, e.g.. Pearl of Goth of unknown origin. Mustache, which arise from mid-July to September and are not removed, they quickly compact the plantation. The fruit looks small, spherical, creamy yellow in color. Green-yellow flesh, very tasty, aromatic. The fruits ripen from June to October.
It is best to allocate places for wild strawberries, previously grown vegetables and include them in the vegetable crop rotation, because wild strawberries are grown in the same place only through 2 patch, and with exceptional care – by 3. Growing wild strawberries in the same place over a long period of time causes fruit to diminish and plants to dry out and spread diseases.
The forecrop for wild strawberries should be vegetables grown on organic fertilizer (manure, chicken manure or compost). Therefore, after harvesting the vegetables, you need to dig the soil, spread mineral fertilizers: 20 day superphosphate i 25 dag of potassium sulfate or potassium salt per 10 m2. If we plant wild strawberries on soil not fertilized with manure, you need to increase the dose to 40 day after 10 m2. Then rake the dug soil and mark out rows for planting wild strawberries. Along with manure, we also provide mineral fertilizers: phosphorus and potassium (12 dag of potassium sulfate i 6 dag of triple superphosphate na 10 m2). In the spring of the next year, our plantation should be supplemented with a dose of nitrogen fertilizers. Ammonium nitrate is used per dose 8 day after 10 m2, dividing it into two parts, the first of which is used before flowering, and the other three weeks later.