Grapevines can and should be grown in our gardens, because grapes are not only tasty, but also a valuable fruit in terms of nutrition and healing. The fruit of the vine, which is the berry, contains acids, mostly guilty, nitrogen compounds, pentozany, fiber (it is poor in vitamins). Of the simple sugars, glucose and fructose are the most abundant in the flesh of the fruit, from disaccharides and sucrose. Grapes also contain a lot of pectin (less than apples), which are of great importance in the treatment and prevention of gastrointestinal diseases.
European grapevine (Vitis vinifera) thanks to centuries of breeding crosses and selections, she gave a lot of varieties, which differ in taste, the size and color of berries and the time of ripening. Early varieties are content with less heat. For these varieties, with a short growing season, the heat and sunshine of the three months of our summer are enough: June, July and August. As a result of the abandonment of grapevine cultivation in the country, there are currently varieties of unknown origin grown in gardens – European and hybrids, which fail in cooler years, making the fruit sour and unpalatable. This discourages the cultivation of this shrub. Meanwhile, in the south-west of the country, in selected regions with favorable microclimatic conditions, grapevines can be grown even on a larger scale by people who know the requirements of this plant and are able to properly manage and care for these shrubs. However, throughout the country, the shrub can be grown against the walls of buildings, e.g.. gazebos, residential house, and fences, walls, etc..
There are two varieties in the selection of varieties for allotment and home gardens: Perła Czabańska and Aurora, and two for warmer regions: Crispy Pink and Treasure of Pannonia.
Perła Czabańska is a variety of Hungarian origin. The bush grows not very strongly. Stems with medium length internodes. Broad leaves, slightly marked 3 klapach, almost naked from below, edges unevenly, bluntly serrated. It blooms quite early, giving out inflorescences withstanding cold weather. The fruits ripen very early, sometimes already in mid-August. Medium-sized grapes, short, slightly branched at the base, o fairly compactly arranged medium-sized berries, green-yellow in color. The berries are spherical, brittle, delicate, tasty, aromatic. During ripening, the grapes are attacked by wasps, therefore it is recommended to cover them just before maturing, e.g.. paper bags. Average fertility. Requires a weaker cut, the so-called. long.
Aurora is a French variety, obtained from the crossing of the European variety with the American. There are no major climatic and soil requirements. It is resistant to fungal diseases. The bush grows quite strongly. It produces numerous shoots, bent, with rather long and thick internodes. Large leaves, 3-flap, coarsely serrated, light green on top, mossy underneath. A fertile shrub, moderately resistant to frost. The bunches are quite large, black. Medium-sized berries, spherical, greenish, with a white coating, juicy, sweet, with a weak fox” aftertaste. Four fairly large seeds. The fruits ripen in mid-September. When fully ripe, the berries flake off. It yields well, both when the medium cut is used, as well as long.
Chrupka Różowa is an old variety with undetermined origin. The bush grows strongly. The variety is not very resistant to frost and diseases, but it starts bearing fruit early and yields abundantly on fertile soils. The fruit is quite large, spherical. Thin skin, light pink or dark pink, with a slight bloom. Firm flesh, juicy, sweet with a spicy aftertaste, very tasty. The bunches are large or quite large, loose. The fruits ripen in late September or early October. The leaves are quite large, with a closed caudal sinus, with overlapping flaps, shiny on the outside, light green on the underside, slightly hairy.
The Treasure of Pannonia is a Hungarian variety. It seems beautiful, huge clusters – long to 40 cm and weighing up to 2 kg. These clusters include golden berries, diameter up to 35 mm, covered with a white can (kutnerem). It is a variety that is sensitive to frost and diseases.
Wanting to avoid losses, most noble varieties, m.in. the last two mentioned varieties, must be protected against frost.