Technique of transport and planting trees.
Transplanting large trees, moved to a new place, with a lump, due to its considerable weight and considerable size of the crown, they always cause some technical difficulties. It is quite an easy case to transplant a large tree with a lump to a place not too far away. The tree can then be moved vertically on the slab and rollers along the ground, on skids, etc.. This is only possible then, when there are no obstacles in the form of wires on the road. For such transport, a tree is usually slipped onto a special plate by means of a handle that embraces the block – the platform, which is hitched to a tractor or other vehicle.
It is much more difficult to transport large trees over longer distances, and at the same time lying down. Such trees must be picked up and placed on the vehicle, transported, and then removed at its destination. This, of course, requires special ones, often heavy cranes and vehicles adapted to such transport. During transport, the tree is exposed to various mechanical damage and therefore it should be carefully protected against it. First of all, you need to wrap the trunk, which is often leaning against the vehicle's box, and tie the branches to the width of the vehicle. The solid should be prevented from rolling sideways by placing special supports or tethering it. If trees are transported over longer distances in leafy condition, it is necessary to wrap the crown with a tarpaulin.
The depth of the pits prepared for planting should correspond to the thickness of the lump. The width should be slightly greater than the diameter of the solid, so that it is possible to unroll and remove the block protection. The bottom of the pit should be slightly loosened and covered 10-15 centimeter layer of fertile soil. After positioning the block, the free spaces are filled up to half its thickness with fertile soil and trampled. After topping up, it is recommended to pour water in this amount, that it soaks to a depth of at least 30 cm. This creates a good "capillary contact" of the block with the soil, allowing water to soak. Then add soil, and form a bowl around the trunk, covering its surface with a 10 cm layer of peat, leaves or similar material, protecting the soil against encrustation, water losses and weed infestation.
The methods and technique of transplanting discussed here are not without disadvantages. The most serious one is quite a lot of human work, constituting 25-40% the cost of transplanting, and the significant cost of the operation of transport and auxiliary machines along with commuting, etc.. The desire to reduce direct human labor and improve the technical improvement of the entire transplanting process led to the construction of special machines for transplanting large trees. The best machines of this type are undoubtedly manufactured by the American company VERMEER.
Machine for transplanting large trees produced by the American company VERMEER and four stages of its work: sequentially – unfolding the frame with spoons around the tree, pressing spoons, taking out a tree with a lump, raised tree – transport position.
One of the machines produced, shown in the picture (model TS44A) is a multi-purpose machine, which digs, transports and plants them in pits prepared with the same machine. This machine is operated by one operator. All parts of the machine are moved by a hydraulic device. It works as follows: He presses four steel spoons around the tree at an angle of about 55 °, placed on a horizontally swiveling frame. A tree with a root ball held by the spoons is lifted above the machine in a tilted position and thus can be transported to the planting site. Excavation takes approximately one minute. Trees excavated with this machine can also be transported in other ways. Then their body, after cutting the lower part, is wrapped with a fabric and wrapped with a net. These machines are produced in various versions, as self-propelled or trailed, and in sizes adapted to the size of transplanted trees. Large trees after planting, until good rooting, they can easily tip over or even be knocked over by the wind. Therefore, they must be tied to the pegs that are hammered in next to them, smokes or otherwise.
Drawing. How to form a bowl around a planted tree and ensure an upright position.