Treating tree damage.
Damage to a tree consisting in breaching the bark and exposing the wood, as well as breach of bark and wood are very common. These are usually damages caused by various mechanical factors, meteorological, biotic and others. Every tree, from the time of preparation in the nursery, is subject to such damage due to the subject of various types of pruning. However, older trees are damaged much more often due to the need to constantly remove branches and other factors. Need to heal various lesions, that is, wounds, it follows, that breaching the bark of the tree and exposing the wood facilitates the access of various microorganisms, and most of all fungi, which, under favorable conditions, cause decomposition of the wood. Wood infection very often occurs in imperceptible places and the decay of the inside of the trunk or branches proceeds imperceptibly. Development of the fungus, which mastered even a small mass of wood located near the wound, it is practically difficult to brake in most cases.
All preventive treatments preventing or limiting the formation and size of wounds are extremely important in the care of trees. The treatment of various wood-exposed wounds is to prevent or inhibit wood infection and to create conditions conducive to healing, that is, the formation of healing tissue and its overgrowth on the wound surface. Healing is understood as overgrowing with the healing tissue of healthy or infected wood, but with an effectively inhibited decomposition. Due to their size, many large wounds of trees cannot be overgrown with healing tissue, that is, it cannot be completely healed. The surfaces of the exposed wood are then only properly cared for to prevent its decomposition.
Means used to heal wounds.
The purpose of using these agents is to disinfect the wound, preventing the development of fungi and to protect the wound from moisture, which conditions the development of wood-decomposing fungi. Because there is no such measure, which would fulfill both purposes simultaneously after covering the wound with it, therefore, two different measures are most often used. Various insect agents can be used to disinfect the wound- and fungicidal. One of the more commonly used is the water-soluble Cresotol, Unfortunately, it has blistering properties against living tissue. It is used in concentration 3%. It is a good measure to protect the wood from infection. However, it must be used with care, at the edge of the wound, due to the possibility of damaging the cambium. Fungicidal copper preparations protect wounds quite effectively, like for example. Miedzian 50. It does not dissolve in water, but it forms a suspension with it. Topsin is one of the new systemic fungicides.
It is a water-soluble preparation used in concentration 0,1%.
From the second group of agents - creating coatings that protect the wound from getting wet - the orchard tar, which has been used for many years, should be replaced.. It creates a coating that effectively protects against moisture and inhibits the growth of fungi. The condition for creating a good coating is to lubricate wounds with a dry and smooth surface with orchard tar. The moist surface of fresh wounds prevents the tar from sticking to the wood. Condensation water may collect under a layer of tar during the night cooling down after applying a not very dry wound surface. Such water favors the decomposition of the wood. Therefore, lubricating wounds with tar should take place after they are dry. This makes the application of this measure somewhat more difficult. Its second drawback is this, that the fresh tar coating, as a result of heating by the sun's rays, may burn living tissue or run over the wound surface and expose it again. Lubrication with emulsion paints turned out to be a good way to protect wounds against damp with rainwater. Their microporous structure prevents free water from penetrating into the wood, however, it allows the wood to dry under the coating. Emulsion paint can be used together with fungicide and insecticide. The Research Institute of Pomology in Skierniewice, on the basis of the conducted research, recommended the use of emulsion paint with the addition of 1-2% Topsin M on the wounds of fruit trees. Observations on the protection of wounds of ornamental trees in this way confirm its effectiveness for a period of 1-2 years and the convenience of use.
The light color of the emulsion paint used greatly facilitates the control of the accuracy of the coverage of the wound surface. However, white paint should not be used because of the unnecessary visual aggressiveness of white spots.
Similar properties, like emulsion paints, it is characterized by a special emulsion produced in Germany under the name "Lackbalsam", also used in Poland. Its additional advantage is the content of substances that act as growth regulators (hormones) accelerating the process of healing tissue formation and wound overgrowth and additives plasticizing the created coating. Growth regulator substances can also be added to the water-based paint.
Gardening ointment should not be used to lubricate the surface of wounds, which, as research has shown, worsens the wound healing process, and in some cases it may promote the decomposition of wood. Wound protection should be performed as soon as possible after their formation, which limits the possibility of infection. Wounds in areas exposed to moisture require particularly careful protection. Lubrication of the damaged surface should be repeated as necessary, until the wound is completely healed.