Transplanting with preparation of the root system.
Usually trees with a trunk diameter of not more than are transplanted without preparation 10-15 cm, tolerating transplanting well, in an appropriate physiological state and under favorable external conditions. Generally, trees tolerate this treatment and catch up after replanting, however, growth inhibition due to cutting off a significant part of their roots causes, that they barely vegetate for many years. Thus, preparation of the root system of larger transplanted trees not only ensures easy acceptance of the trees, but it guarantees its further satisfactory growth and development. Conifers cannot be planted without preparation, deciduous trees transplanted during the growing season (with leaves), nor are trees to grow under unfavorable conditions.
Transplanting with the preparation of the root system requires more discussion, because it allows very large trees to be planted successfully, even with leaves. It is possible thanks to this, that even before transplanting, the tree is formed in a small lump, after cutting off the old roots, new regenerated system with sufficient physiological efficiency in relation to the crown. This is the essence of preparing for transplanting. The tree can be considered as prepared, if the cut off root system has been regenerated to the extent that the tree will continue to grow successfully. The trees prepared in this way take on easily, like other plants previously grown in pots or containers. Preparation may take one or two growing seasons. In some cases, the preparation can be carried out in the fall and winter after the end of vegetation. During this period, partial regeneration takes place and the tree can be replanted in spring. If preparation takes one season, all roots are pruned in spring. Larger trees are usually prepared for two years and root cutting is then spread over two periods. The roots are cut in the vertical plane of the intended body. Roots passing through the bottom of the lump (so in its horizontal plane) are not cut until the tree is taken to a new location. Throughout the preparation period, these roots ensure the uptake of water and nutrients in the event of bad weather conditions or insufficient care, and protect the tree from falling over.. Trees with a shallow root system and exposed to strong winds in exposed places should be specially protected against tipping over, and even tilting.
Drawing. The root system of a tree that is being prepared for replanting after cutting the roots, placing the foil and filling with peat substrate and after regenerating the cut off roots: a – litter, b – peat substrate, c – foil.
Preparation is as follows. After the perimeter of the block has been established, a groove is cut around the tree with a shovel, and then removes the surface layer of soil down to the depth of the uppermost roots. Then, on the inside of the defined perimeter, a blade-wide groove is dug to the depth of the expected body thickness. Should be added, that in the case of the preparation of small trees and ensuring very good care during the preparation period,, the size of the body may be 20-30% smaller. This is of great importance due to the final weight of the transplanted tree and transport options. While digging the groove, the encountered roots are removed along its entire width, first cutting from the solid side, then against the outer wall. If the intersection is to be made in two steps, then part of the topmost roots (due to easier access) should be left uncut. Their location, in order to find it easier, should be marked by hammering the pegs outside or by circling (e.g.. paint) places on the trunk, etc.. All the roots should be cut like this, that the cut surfaces are as small and smooth as possible. The place of the cut should be lubricated with disinfectants. Earth made of lumps, if it is not heavily overgrown with fine roots, it should be crushed and removed. After such preparation, the outer wall of the trench is lined with a strip of polyethylene foil with a thickness 0,1-0,2 mm and the width corresponding to the depth of the groove. The task of this foil will be to prevent the roots from growing beyond this plane, which will be the external (perimeter) solid surface. This foil will also help to maintain the appropriate humidity in the so designated block. Then the free space is filled with peat compost rich in easily digestible nutrients or with soil with a high content of humus.. Such compost or soil should not be firmly compacted, and only oppress. This is to ensure free access of air, needed for the formation of young roots. If he is preparing to transplant a tree with very large clumps, better access to air can be provided by adding various loosening materials to the compost or soil, like for example. shredded polystyrene, prepared pine bark, lightweight aggregates etc.. Thin perforated plastic tubes can also be incorporated into this mass.
The condition for the formation of a large number of young roots in this zone is to ensure sufficient moisture by sufficiently frequent watering. Neglecting watering can result, that the roots will be drawn down in search of water, which should not be allowed to happen. Water should be done once a week with this amount of water, which saturates the solid to a depth of at least half its thickness. To reduce water loss by evaporation, cover the soil at least on the surface of the lump with a layer of peat mulch or similar material. Also, care should be taken to keep this area free of weeds, which in such conditions can settle and develop exceptionally well, taking the water. In the event of a very unfavorable set of soil and meteorological factors, one should also use methods limiting the tree transpiration. For this purpose, you can wrap a tree trunk and thicker branches with fabrics that protect the surface of the bark from heating.. Removal is a frequently used method 30-50% small branches with a thickness not exceeding 2 cm.