Leading plums in the form of a free row.
When carrying plums in a lane form, planting distances between rows should be from 4,0 do 4,5 m, and in rows from 3 do 5 m. Cutting trees in the spring after planting them in the orchard is similar to the formation of almost natural crowns, however, in branched maiden trees, only these side shoots should be left, which are directed to the line of the row.
In the second year, we bend the side shoots, we direct them along the row and tie them with strings to the pins stuck under the trees. Bent shoots should not be shortened. The guide, however, needs to be shortened at a height of approx 0,5 m from the branches (Lynx.).
Lynx. Bending of shoots in the first year of forming the crown of a lane of a plum tree.
The formation of a lane crown continues 3 patch. Every year we try to bend and tie two to four shoots. Stems too stiff, cut out smoothly at the guide which cannot be bent.
Young plum trees usually grow very intensively, and therefore many strong shoots shoot out on bent twigs, which grow vertically and shade the central parts of the crown (Lynx.).
Lynx. Bending and cutting the shoots in the second year of forming the crown of the lined plum tree.
It is recommended to supplement spring molding procedures with a summer cut. We perform summer cutting in the second half of June. During this time, vertical shoots growing at the base of the branches should be pinched over 3-5 fully developed leaves. It is worth repeating the cut a month later, that is, after 15 July.
The formation of the lining crowns can be completed, when the handler grows up to an arm's length, that is, approx 2,2 m. At this height, it should be bent to the side or cut out.
Formed lines need to be X-rayed every year. In a several-year orchard, x-raying is limited to cutting out shoots and small twigs, which intersect and grow into the center of the crown. In the older orchard you have to make sure that the crowns do not grow excessively in the upper part. All strong growths appearing on the highest branches must be removed smoothly. In the lower part of the row, we pay attention to the distances between the branches. On the older tree, the branches should be arranged at intervals 40-50 cm one from the other. If they are placed more densely, they need to be gradually thinned out, removing 2-3 each year (Lynx.).
Lynx. X-raying the crown of a fruit plum tree.
The need to thin out the branches appears between 8-12 years of age of trees. Permanently it is enough to leave approx 8 branches.
Throughout the entire period of use of the orchard, the rows should be kept at a constant, unchanged thickness, which in the spring after cutting should be 1,5 m. A constant thickness can be maintained by cutting all strong shoots growing towards the inter-row in the spring. Shoots weaker (length to 40 cm) should be left on fruit-bearing twigs. Once the shoot has formed flower buds, it can be shortened, in order not to go beyond the set boundary in the inter-row. It happens, that plums that are planted too densely and run in rows require strong pruning, which is designed to limit the size of trees. Strong pruning in spring may cause the trees to become infected with silver leaves. In this case, summer cutting is advisable. In the summer, from July to the end of August, all strong annual growths appearing on the branches can be cut. Weaker shoots can be pinched out as fruiting elements. Early plum trees, the fruits of which are picked in August can be x-rayed after the harvest. Cutting performed in summer does not pose a risk of tree damage due to silver leaves. The regrowth of shoots after summer cutting is weaker than after winter cutting.
In every plum orchard, regardless of the preventive measures adopted, leaves may appear silvery. This disease often attacks trees after cold winters, if frost has damaged trees. Trees severely affected by silver leaves should be pulled down and burned. Trees with symptoms of disease on individual branches should be marked with paint and cut separately, after healthy trees are cut. The cutting wounds should be lubricated on the same day, preferably Santarem SM.