Circumstances, in which it is necessary to make a cut, and the technique and method of forming the cut plane have already been discussed. Each cut causes a wound and must be regarded as a necessary evil. It is known from experience, that in the places of cut or fracture, the most dangerous and rapidly progressing decomposition of the wood occurs very often. The possibility of fairly easy fungal infection and quick decomposition of wood in these places is determined by the exposure of the cut tissues to environmental factors and their easy absorption. The location of some cutting sites facilitates the direct entry of rainwater or water running down the bark surface. Cutting areas in trees with soft and absorbent wood, like for example. poplar, willow trees, linden trees, chestnut trees, clones, they are very easily infected and decomposed. Therefore, cutting large branches of these trees should be extremely limited, and the resulting wounds must be carefully disinfected and protected against moisture. If branches or boughs that are decayed or clearly infested with fungi are cut off, the resulting wounds must be cared for using the methods discussed in the section on the treatment of wood defects.
Fracture damage is very common and dangerous among trees. The causes of branch fractures, and often the large branches are very different, and they rely on the action of great forces, which the tree cannot resist. The most common reason for breaking branches, boughs and even overturning trees with uprooting are strong, hurricane winds. Tall trees are the easiest to suffer from, slightly branched at the bottom, single trees after removing various windbreaks, etc.. Deciduous deciduous, evergreen and coniferous trees are more vulnerable to damage by strong winds.
A common cause of fractures is icing on the branches, formed as a result of frosty rainfall. The ice layer formed on the tree may cause the crown branches to break completely. Similar effects are caused by overloading the branches with snow. The damage caused by these factors is even greater, if falling wet snow freezes to a leafy or coniferous tree.
The fracture most often occurs in the weakened area, so mostly there, where the wood has already decayed. The form of the fracture may vary. The smallest wounds are caused by simple fractures (drawing).
Drawing. Simple fracture and the method of cutting after fracture; numerous young shoots, which grew out of agitated buds allow the wound to heal.
In such a case, the branch below the fracture should be cut off with an oblique cut (provides better healing and less moisture). A broken branch can be reconstructed from strong shoots growing up by proper guidance. Some of them should be removed after a few years. If the fracture is very close to the root, then the remainder of the broken branch should be removed at the root.
Fractures causing splitting of the lower part of the branch are much more dangerous, often reaching down to its root. The wounds are then much larger. Thin branches with such fractures should be cut below the fracture and split or at the root. A broken and split limb can be left behind on larger and thick tree limbs with greater wound healing capacity (drawing), by making appropriate cuts and by leveling and smoothing the fission plane.
Drawing. Fracture with split and the method of cutting after fracture.
The part of the broken limb that is left behind is a good structural basis for regrowing shoots and forming branches. In sufficiently dense crowns, however, it may be more expedient to remove such a broken branch at its base.