Palmeta skośna (Italian).
Palmettes belong to the lane crowns with a guide and several strong branches embedded on it in one vertical plane. There are several forms of palmettes, which differ in the arrangement of branches on the guide and the size of the angle they create with the guide. Palmets with regularly spaced limbs are called regular, and with branches lying at any intervals - irregular. Depending on the angle of the limbs, oblique and horizontal palmettes are distinguished. The most common are oblique palmettes with branches set at regular intervals, called Italian (Lynx.).
Lynx. Apple tree in the form of an Italian palmette.
This form is suitable in Italy mainly for apple trees grafted on vigorously growing seedlings. It is also very popular in Bulgaria, Romania and Yugoslavia, where apple trees grafted on semi-dwarf rootstocks are carried out in the form of Italian palettes, and under favorable conditions also on dwarf rootstocks. The trees are led by scaffolding consisting of reinforced concrete posts and wires stretched over them.
In the sunny climate of Southern Europe, palmettes show many advantages. Strongly growing apple trees in this form form a kind of fruit wall, which are 4-5 m high and 1-2 m thick. This form allows easy access to trees with the use of movable platforms moving between rows.
The total bearing surface of the walls is very large, which ensures high yields of apples per hectare.
In Central and Western Europe, where sunlight is half the size, palmettes give way to much lower free and spindle lane crowns in terms of value.
The palettes are formed as follows: annuals planted in a distance 4 m, in a row from the row and 3-5 m in a row, in the spring pruned at a height of 60-70 cm from the ground and all side shoots are removed. In mid-summer, 3-4 shoots are selected from each tree. The highest one is allocated to the guide, and the other two or three on the branches. All other shoots are pinched or bent downwards.
In the spring, in the second year after planting the trees, a guide is tied vertically to wires or a pole and two strong shoots leading them diagonally at an angle of 30-40 ° to the horizontal. The first pair of branches will form from these shoots (Lynx.).
Lynx. Forming Italian palmette: the first pair of boughs was bent and tied to poles; in the upper part of the crown, shoots are left for the second pair of boughs.
All other strong shoots are cut smooth at the guide or bent downwards. Fruit-bearing branches will be formed from shoots bent downwards.
In the third or fourth year after planting, another pair of shoots are selected on the handler for boughs. Depending on the strength of the growth of the trees, distances are left from 70 do 130 cm between successive pairs of limbs. The stronger the growth of the trees, the greater the distances required. Forming the second, and then the third pair of branches is the same as the formation of the first pair. Trees with three tiers of limbs take five years to form. The formed trees are approx 4 m in height. In order to obtain higher trees, 4-meter long is formed 4 bough floors.
Shaped palmettes are x-rayed every year or other cutting methods are used.