A five-crown crown
This form is popular in apple orchards in Australia and New Zealand. In America, it is called the five-conductor crown. On a one-year-old tree planted in an orchard, one chooses 5 shoots, which is carried outside first, just like in the cauldron, then vertically up, to a height of approx 2 m. The correct position of the limbs is obtained by cutting and bending the young, intensively growing shoots. Spacers are put on during the forming period, which guide the young limbs to the desired position. After the formation of the trees is completed, they are cut with the method "for short shoots" (Lynx.).
Lynx. A five-crown crown cut into short shoots.
The five-crown crown shows no particular advantages. The form of formation is more of tradition than of any scientific stoppage. The penetration of sunlight into its interior is poor, but in Australia's sunny climate this is not a problem.
The conical form was once very popular in dwarf orchards. Currently, it is rarely found in commercial courts and recommended only for amateur courts. A conical crown consists of a conductor and many branches, the higher branch is always shorter than the lower one. The conical form is suitable for apple trees grafted on dwarf rootstocks and pears grafted on quince (Lynx.).
Lynx. Dwarf apple tree in the form of a cone.
The trees that have been planted are pruned into a cone. The lower shoots are approx 20 cm in length, upper shoots only 5 cm in length. The guide shortens in distance 60 cm from the ground. In the second year after planting, the guide is shortened in distance 30-40 cm from the uppermost branches. Side shoots are also shortened and the stronger the higher they lie in the crown. The same is done in the third and fourth years to bring the crown to height 1,5-2,0 m.
After forming, a summer cut is usually performed, the purpose of which is to maintain the conical shape of trees. This year's increments are shortened depending on their position in the crown: axial increments of limbs over 1-2 eyelet, lower lying over 3 eyelet, and still lower over 5 eyelet. Increments below 20 cm in length is not shortened by treating them as fruiting shoots.