The most popular forms of tree crowns with any number of branches are currently the most popular in Europe. These include the crowns already described in detail: almost natural, free and spindle line. Trees with any number of limbs quickly begin fruiting and are therefore perfect for densely planted intensive orchards. In America, in Australia and many other countries, where the early yielding of trees is not given much attention, crown forms with strictly limited number of branches are popular. These include forms: loose storey, liderowa, boiler and five-charcoal. In dwarf orchards, there are conical and columnar forms. In Italy and France, lined forms are very popular: palmeta skośna, that is, the Italian flagship form, oblique line (Thomasa mouths) and an arched line (Lepag’a).
The loose-leaf crown has a conductor, on which two or three loose branches are embedded, separated from each other by about 40 cm. There are 2-3 branches at most in one floor. Together it is 6-8 branches. It is the crown of a strong structure, loose, well insolated, ensuring high-quality fruit. It is especially suitable for vigorously growing and semi-dwarf apple and pear trees. It is popular in extensive orchards in the USA, in the Soviet Union and in China. It was recommended for us in the post-war period, but it was not widely recognized. When forming a loose-tiered crown, only a young one-year-old tree is left 3 branching and conductor. In the second year, the next ones are left in place 3 branching, and in the third year, two more. Together, the boughs are chosen the highest 8 shoots emerging from the guide, while the average apple tree is approx 15 shoots. The necessity of fairly strong pruning delays the trees entering the fruiting period. Typical loose-tiered crowns are not formed in our orchards. However, many apple and pear trees kept in an almost natural form in old age resemble loose-tiered crowns. They have a conductor cut to 2.0-2.5 m from the ground and only 6-8 branches, loose on it.
This form is popular in many apple orchards in the USA. It is literally translated as a guide crown, because the leader, that is, the guide plays a major role here. Only 3-4 boughs are embedded on the guide. Such a crown is strong, loose, well insolated (Lynx.).
Lynx. The leader crown has a conductor and only 3-4 branches.
In order to form it, the trees must be cut very strongly, which delays the trees entering the fruiting period. Suitable for extensive orchards.