General conditions for planting trees.
The trees intended for planting should meet a number of conditions, on which depends on obtaining a specific form, proper health, acceptance of the plant after planting and its continued successful growth and development. Requirements for woody plants admitted to trade are defined in specially developed quality standards. These standards apply to nursery material of deciduous trees (BN-65-9125-02) and conifers (BN-65-9125-03). Each of these standards includes an inventory of plants, detailed quality descriptions, required methods of packaging, transport and storage. Such standards are not only the basis for the assessment of plants placed on the market, but they also allow the recipient to check their quality.
The specific requirements for various species of ornamental trees concern the following features: forms (natural, shrubby or foamy), size classes, the height of the above-ground part, guide length, the height of the trunk, trunk diameter, the number of crown shoots, the number of skeletal roots and their length, etc.. These features allow plants to qualify for the first or second choice.
Strong mechanical damage is a disqualifying feature of trees in trade, infestation by disease or pest control, overdrying with symptoms of wrinkled bark, bark necrosis, etc..
There is an important rule to remember when starting planting, that the time from digging up the plant in the nursery to planting it at its destination should be as short as possible. Plants dig up too early, long and cumbersome transport, improper packaging and too late planting, they always have a very negative effect on plants. After being dug up, each tree continuously loses water and does not replenish it. Thin roots and twigs lose water most easily. They also dry up and die most quickly. Plants excessively dry, especially with desiccated roots, they take on very hard, and often they do not adopt at all despite careful care after planting. It is possible to reduce water losses and reduce the risk of dry plants, if excavating, transportation and planting will take place only on cool and cloudy days. During transport, plants should be properly covered and sheltered from the drying effects of wind and sun radiation. Please note, that intensive drying of plants also occurs at sub-zero temperatures. Low temperatures can also cause the roots to freeze, and it is all the easier, the more these roots are exposed.
When transporting young trees, various mechanical damage occurs very often, like fractures, cuts or tears of the bark, roots, etc.. Therefore, it is necessary to properly protect the trees by appropriate packaging at the production site, that is, in the nursery.
Plants, which, after delivery to the place of destination, cannot be planted immediately, should be stored that way, so that they do not dry out, stimulating vegetation, freezing of the roots, mechanical damage, etc.. The least risky thing is to store the plants for several days in cool and cloudy weather. However, if possible, they should be placed in shade and sheltered from the wind. Sheds or cool storage rooms are well suited for this purpose. Plants are often stored against the walls of buildings on the north side or in other places with similar conditions. Smaller amounts of plants can be stored in cellars, however not very dry. Plant roots in the short term (several days) For storage, it is best to cover it with peat and water it abundantly.
If the plants have to be stored for a longer period in unfavorable conditions in open ground, it is then necessary to bottom them. For this purpose, a groove should be dug that allows the roots to be placed freely. Plants need to be tilted southwards (lower heating), and in shady places in the direction of the blowing winds. The roots should be covered with loose soil and watered abundantly. To prevent the beginning of vegetation (which occurs quickly in the spring when the temperature rises), pitted plants should be covered with mats or straw. Planting plants with developing leaves, especially in hot and dry weather, hinders their reception. For these reasons, the earliest plants should be planted first.
Stored trees of different species must be appropriately identified by means of labels with names or other means that make them easy to find.