Cutting the vine.
The grapevine is a creeper, which, left alone, can grow up to several dozen meters in height, as long as it finds support. Thanks to the pruning, the cultivated vine bushes are kept in strictly controlled sizes. The cutting of the grapevine has been developed down to the smallest detail for hundreds of years. There are also several dozen methods of unfastening the skid and cutting it. For viticulture in our conditions, it is enough to know two or three methods.
A cared for grapevine bush consists of a short stump and sometimes skeletal shoots that are several years old, usually very shortened by cutting. Two-year-old shoots are embedded on the trunk or skeletal shoots, called a bed, from which this year's fruiting shoots grow. This year's shoots become a bed in the following year (Lynx.).
Lynx. Grapevines on a commercial plantation: a - pieniek; b - perennial shoot; c - caddy.
The biennial shoots, i.e. the stalk, have a smooth bark, brightly colored, ash-brown or brown. Older shoots have gray bark, scaly. The grapevine bears fruit on this year's shoots, which develop from well-formed eyelets set on the frame. This year's developing shoot has a characteristic leaf arrangement, tendrils and flowers (Lynx.).
Lynx. One-year vine shoot: G – bunch; P - donut, In you, Pp — pasierb; W - wick.
There are leaves and inflorescences at the bottom of the shoot, above leaves and whiskers. Some varieties make up 1-2 inflorescences, other 2-3 inflorescences or more. During the summer, the vine shoot can grow up to 6 m, but in practice it is never allowed to do so, because the length of 2-3 clusters is sufficient for fruiting. The vine shoot bears fruit only once. After fruiting it becomes a skeletal shoot or is removed.
As the shoot grows in the summer, premature shoots called pasins or stepchildren appear on it in the same year.. These shoots are of no use, so they are cut in summer. Most of the vines in Poland are planted near the walls of houses. The wall protects the shrubs from cold winds and at the same time can be a support for the shoots. To do this, fix horizontal slats or a grate with a mesh size of 40X40 cm to the wall, or spread horizontal wires on the wall. Bushes should be planted at a distance 30 cm from the wall, giving spaces between them 1 m.
Grapevines are grown outdoors on a few plantations in the country. In this case, scaffolding is needed to unfasten the skids. Posts or long stakes are needed for the scaffolding 1,5 m. The stakes are hammered in a row at intervals of 10-12 m. The first wire gives 30 cm above the ground, and next what 40 cm one from the other. The best are galvanized wires with a diameter of 2-3 mm. The distance between the rows should be 3 m, in a row 1,5-2,0 m.
In the spring, prune the planted vines, leaving only them 2 meshes above the ground on the strongest shoot. We remove the remaining shoots. During the summer, we attach the emerging shoots to a stake or scaffolding. In the second year, the cut is identical to the first year. In the third year, the wick is strong enough, that it can be cut in the spring to give the shrubs the right form.