Queen of flowers – rose, it was cultivated widely in ancient China due to its decorative value and essential oils with a lasting fragrance, Egypt, Greece and Rome. According to Greek mythology, the rose was born from sea foam along with Aphrodite, goddess of love and beauty. Currently, several dozen species of roses are known, and thanks to the ease of crossing them, thousands of noble varieties have been produced. Their number continues to increase. Roses found so many followers, that lovers of this plant had formed. The Rose Lovers Society has also been operating in Poland for many years, which deals with their popularization. Currently, several groups of these attractive plants are distinguished: repeating flowering roses (otherwise renovators), tea roses, the breed of Pernet garden roses, multiflorous dwarf roses, called polyists, finally, clinging roses.
The first renovation was bred in France in 1843 r.f and because it had many advantages – the bushes grew extraordinarily vigorous and healthy, reaching 1 m in height, it towered above the earlier breeds of roses in size and fullness of flowers – gained great popularity. These roses quickly entered gardens and parks, and they were also grown as cut flowers in the ground and under glass. In Poland, these roses have become very popular, especially such varieties, how: Paul Nayron, Mrs. Karl Druschi, Heinrich Munch. Hugh Dickson, Ulrich Brunner fils.
Renovation workers, apart from many advantages, also had disadvantages. As long as they could impress with a very generous spring flowering, so much second flowering – autumn – it was incomparably more modest, in some varieties it is even weak. Besides, the scale of their colors was basically limited to white, pink in various shades and red in many shades. This prompted breeders to new searches. Among others,. to cross tea roses, derived from the Chinese rose imported to Europe, with renovators and beautiful tea hybrids were obtained, vigorous and profusely flowering all summer until late autumn. In addition, these flowers with a beautiful shape and pastel colors have a very pleasant fragrance. Among the many varieties of tea hybrids, they attract attention: white-flowered – White Swan, Virgo, yellow – Madame Meilland. Golden Masterpiece, Orange – Bettina, Beaute. pink – Ballet, Eiffel Tower, red -Super Star, Papa Meilland, Christian Dior i inne.
A very large group of Pernet roses was obtained by crossing redonant plants with the yellow rose. These plants are characterized by beautiful orange flowers, yellow ones, red with many shades. They are tall shrubs 0,5-1 m. Buds, with a beautiful shape, appear and develop into large flowers from June to late fall. They are world famous to this day: President H. Hoover i Katherine Pechtold.
Multiflower roses, the so-called. polianty, obtained by crossing, they usually grow to a height 40-50 cm. They are characterized by abundant flowering and greater resistance to unfavorable weather conditions, especially frost. The flowers are smaller than those previously described, but collected in multi-flower inflorescences. The latest breeds of this group – Polynatha hybrida and Ftoribunda have larger flowers and are more similar in shape to multi-flower roses, but less numerous.
Climbing roses are shrubs with long stems, heights 1,5-5 m. We can plant such varieties next to half-shaded walls, how: Dorothy Perkins, Excelsa. Multiflower Neige Rosa looks nice on the pergola – blooming pink in June. We often decorate entrance gates with climbing roses. Of these roses, New Dawn with pale pink flowers is used for this purpose, blooming profusely all summer, Blaze Superior – scarlet magenta, and Parkdirektor Rigger - red songwriter.
Park roses are less often grown in gardens, which have a habit resembling other ornamental shrubs and therefore are used in a similar way – especially for hedges, unformed lines, etc.. Their flowers are less magnificent, but the bushes are quite ornamental, they have profuse foliage, especially brightly colored fruit. These include roses: stylistic, damasceńska, yellow, multiflorous.
Roses, the so-called. stems are not a special group of varieties, but in the form of a rose brought out as a tree by budding. The rootstock is usually a wild rose.
Roses thrive in sandy loam soils with a slightly alkaline reaction. They require a lot of sun, especially in the morning, while in the afternoon, the site may be slightly shaded. Choose a quiet place for growing roses, sheltered from the north wind. The soil should be well and deeply tilled, carefully cleaned of weeds. The planting distance depends on the variety of roses, soil fertility and cultivation direction (for a cut flower or ornament). Usually large-flowered roses are planted 30-40 cm, multiflorous co 25-30 cm. Standard roses are arranged every 60-80 cm. Before planting, a hole is dug in diameter 30 cm and the same depth. Important care procedures include cutting roses and covering them for the winter. Shrubs of cultivars of roses are propagated by budding on the rootstocks of wild roses. Roses have high nutritional requirements, therefore they need an annual fertilization.