Everywhere, where trees are grown, there is often a need to remove specimens that pose a threat to safety, disturbing, etc.. Felling and fell trees are very dangerous activities, both for those who carry out this work and for the environment. In the city or in the park, where there are often additional obstacles, like overhead telecommunications and energy networks, buildings, you have, moving vehicles, adjacent trees etc.. removing a tree requires great care and precision.
Felling full-trunks trees. Felling full-trunks trees, straight and upright are made by undercut on the side, in which they intend to overthrow them.
Drawing. Methods of cutting and felling full trunks of various thickness and decaying trunks: 1 - full-trunk tree felling, 2 - felling a tree with a trunk with a symmetrical wood defect, 3 - felling a tree with a trunk with asymmetrical wood loss; a - undercut, b - shear cut, c — klin.
This creates the so-called. bending moment, causing the trunk to tilt in the chosen direction (Lynx. 1). The deeper the undercut is, the greater the bending moment is generated. The second step is to make the main cut - the shear cut. This cut is made from the opposite side, about 3 cm above the undercut. They are run horizontally and end a few centimeters before the undercut, so that the uncut part of the wood forms a so-called hinge, ensuring that the falling tree is guided in the desired direction. Cutting down trees with hollow trunks. Cutting down trees with hollow trunks (rotten) in the mundane parts it is especially dangerous, as it can happen prematurely, a tree suddenly falling or sliding under its own weight with a simultaneous tear or fracture of the trunk. When the environmental conditions allow it, the felling direction should depend on the thickness of the walls on the trunk cross-section. Thicker walls should be in a plane parallel to the direction of the tree (Lynx. 1 i 2).
If there are larger wood losses in the upper parts of the trunk, it should be taken into account that it may break during felling. It is therefore important to strive for the smoothest possible debunking. Thick root tamps can make it difficult to fall the tree in the right direction, therefore, they often need to be removed beforehand. Existence of overruns in sloping trees, rotten skin can often be useful in providing the desired direction of incidence. When cutting down trees growing at high density, it is necessary to remove the branches before cutting to the extent that the expected damage is kept to a minimum.
Felled poles are used to direct the felling of trees, wedges and ropes. Effective assistance can be provided by a tractor with the required direction of incidence and various devices to facilitate rope tension. For safety reasons, ropes should be used at least twice as long as the tree height. In some situations it is impossible to fell trees, namely when it threatens buildings, traffic, etc..
In this case, the tree must be gradually removed from the apex. The size of the parts to be removed depends on their weight and how they are lowered. Lowering is usually done by tying with ropes.